Yarn level simulation of warp-knitted clothing elements – first results and challenges





warp knitting, simulation, mesh, coordinate mapping


To simulate a warp-knitted product with a specific shape, a mesh-based model for modeling and simulation is proposed. The three-dimensional geometry of the final fabric is represented as a set of polygons, each of them containing information about the 3D orientation of the yarns in the warp knitted structure. Using spatial mapping, stitch coordinates are transformed from the flat mesh model to the three-dimensional mesh model and the final rendering is accomplished. The method provides yarn level data for the complete structure and can be used for speeding up the design process of clothing with warp-knitted products. Several challenges with the larger data amount and possible ways for their solutions are discussed.


Volino, P.; Magnenat-Thalmann, N.; Faure, F. A simple approach to nonlinear tensile stiffness for accurate cloth simulation. ACM Trans. Graph. 2019, 28(4), 105. DOI: 10.1145/1559755.1559762.

Wang, H. M.; O’Brien J. F.; Ramamoorthi, R. Data-driven elastic models for cloth: modeling and measurement. ACM Trans. Graph. 2011, 30(4), 1-12. DOI: 10.1145/2010324.1964966.

Wan, T. R.; Tang, W. Real-time computational modelling of textile fabric and cloth. Journal of Xi'an Polytechnic University 2013, 27(5), 551-562. DOI: 10.13338/j.issn.1674-649x.2013.05.007.

Lu, Z. W.; Jiang, G. M. Rapid simulation of flat knitting loops based on the yarn texture and loop geometrical model. Autex Res. J. 2017, 17(2), 103-110. DOI: 10.1515/aut-2016-0002.

Jiang, G. M.; Lu, Z. W.; Cong, H. L.; Zhang, A. J.; Dong, Z. J.; Jia. D. D. Flat knitting loop deformation simulation based on interlacing point model. Autex Res. J. 2017, 17(4), 361-369. DOI: 10.1515/aut-2016-0019.

Li, X. X.; Zhang, A. J.; Ma, P, B,; Cong, H. L.; Jiang, G. M. Structural deformation behavior of Jacquardtronic lace based on the mass-spring model. Text. Res. J. 2017, 87(10), 1242-1250. DOI: 10.1177/0040517516651103.

Li, X. X.; Jiang, G. M.; Zhang, A. J.; Chen, J. Y. A photograph-based approach for visual simulation of wrapped Jacquardtronic lace. Text. Res. J. 2018, 88(23), 2654-2664. DOI: 10.1177/0040517517729386.

Liu, H. S.; Jiang, G. M.; Dong, Z. J. A shortened development process method for warp-knitted yarn-dyed shirt fabric. Text. Res. J. 2021, 91(3-4), 443-455. DOI: 10.1177/0040517520937372.

Cong, H. L.; Ge, M. Q.; Jiang, G. M. 3-D modeling for warp knitted fabric based on NURBS. Journal of Textile Research 2008, 11, 132-136. DOI: 10.13475/j.fzxb.2008.11.003 (in Chinese).

Zhang, L. Z.; Jiang, G. M.; Gao, W. D. 3-D simulation and dynamic realization of warp-knitted structure. Journal of Textile Research 2009, 30(2), 125-129. DOI: 10.13475/j.fzxb.2009.02.011 (in Chinese).

Sha, S.; Ma, P. B.; Chapman, L. P.; Zhang, A. J. Three-dimensional modeling and simulation of deformation behavior of fancy weft knitted stitch fabric. Text. Res. J. 2017, 87(14), 1742-1751. DOI: 10.1177/0040517516658518.

Peng, J. J.; Jiang, G. M.; Xia, F. L.; Cong, H. L.; Dong, Z. J. Deformation and geometric modeling in three-dimensional simulation of fancy weft-knitted fabric. Text. Res. J. 2020, 90(13-14), 1527-1536. DOI: 10.1177/0040517519894749.

Renkens, W.; Kyosev, Y. Geometry modelling of warp knitted fabrics with 3D form. Text. Res. J. 2011, 81(4), 437-443. DOI: 10.1177/0040517510385171.

Liu, H. S.; Jiang, G. M.; Dong, Z. J. Mesh modeling and simulation for three-dimensional warp-knitted tubular fabrics. J. Text. Inst. 2021, 113(2), 301-313. DOI: 10.1080/00405000.2020.1871184.

Igarashi, Y.; Igarashi, T.; Suzuki, H. Knitting a 3D model. Comput. Graph. Forum. 2008, 27(7), 1737-1743. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-8659.2008.01318.x.

Yuksel, C.; Kaldor, J. M.; James, D. L.; Marschner, S. Stitch meshes for modeling knitted clothing with yarn-level detail. ACM Trans. Graph. 2012, 31(4), 1-12. DOI: 10.1145/2185520.2185533.

Wu, K.; Gao, X.; Ferguson, Z.; Panozzo, D.; Yuksel C. Stitch meshing. ACM Trans. Graph. 2018, 37(4), 130. DOI: 10.1145/3197517.3201360.

Wu, K.; Swan, H.; Yuksel, C. Knittable stitch meshes. ACM Trans. Graph. 2019, 38(1), 10. DOI: 10.1145/3292481.

Araújo, de M.; Fangueiro, R.; Hong, H. Modelling and simulation of the mechanical behaviour of weft-knitted fabrics for technical applications: Part III: 2D hexagonal FEA model with non-linear truss elements. Autex Res. J. 2004, 4(1), 25-32. URL: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/288567971.

Cong, H.; Ge, M.; Jiang, G. Three-dimensional simulation of warp-knitted fabric. Fibres Text. East. Eur. 2009, 3(74): 66-69. URL: http://www.fibtex.lodz.pl/article19.html.

Simulation results of warp knitted structure at yarn level at high curvature of the main surface



How to Cite

Liu, H., Kyosev, Y., & Jiang, G. (2022). Yarn level simulation of warp-knitted clothing elements – first results and challenges. Communications in Development and Assembling of Textile Products, 3(2), 115-126. https://doi.org/10.25367/cdatp.2022.3.p115-126



Peer-reviewed articles