Sandwiching textiles with FDM Printing


  • Mahmut-Sami Özev Bielefeld University of Applied Sciences
  • Andrea Ehrmann Faculty of Engineering and Mathematics, Bielefeld University of Applied Sciences, Bielefeld, Germany



textile fabrics, fused deposition modeling (FDM), composite, thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU), cotton, aramid


3D printing on textile fabrics has been investigated intensively during the last years. A critical factor is the adhesion between the printed polymer and the textile fabric, limiting the potential areas of application. Especially safety-related applications, e.g. stab-resistant textile/polymer composites, need to show reliable adhesion between both components to serve their purpose. Here we investigate the possibility of sandwiching textiles between 3D-printed layers, produced by fused deposition modeling (FDM). We show that adding nubs to the lower 3D-printed layers stabilizes the inner textile fabric and suggest future constructive improvements to further enhance the textile-polymer connection.


Pfister, A.; Walz, U.; Laib, A.; Mülhaupt, R. Polymer Ionomers for Rapid Prototyping and Rapid Manufacturing by Means of 3D Printing. Macromol. Mater. Eng. 2005, 290, 99-113. DOI:

Mitra, S.; Rodríguez de Castro, A.; El Mansori, M. On the rapid manufacturing process of functional 3D printed sand molds. J. Manufact. Proc. 2019, 42, 202-212. DOI:

Park, S. y.; Ko, B. J.; Lee, H. W.; So, H. Y. Rapid manufacturing of micro-drilling devices using FFF-type 3D printing technology. Sci. Rep. 2021, 11, 12179. DOI:

Afshar, A.; Mihut, D. Enhancing durability of 3D printed polymer structures by metallization. J. Mater. Sci. Technol. 2020, 53, 185-191. DOI:

Arunothayan, A. R.; Nematollahi, B.; Ranade, R.; Bong, S. H.; Sanjayan, J. Development of 3D-printable ultra-high performance fiber-reinforced concrete for digital construction. Construction and Building Materials 2020, 257, 119546. DOI:

Oviedo, A. M.; Puente, A.H.; Bernal, C.; Perez, E. Mechanical evaluation of polymeric filaments and their corresponding 3D printed samples. Polymer Testing 2020, 88, 106561. DOI:

Sitotaw, D. B.; Muenks, D. M.; Kyosev, Y. K.; Kabish, A. K. Investigation of Parameters of Fused Deposition Modelling 3D Prints with Compression Properties. Adv. Mater. Sci. Eng. 2022, 2022, 4700723. DOI:

Dong, J.; Mei, C. T.; Han, J. Q.; Lee, S. Y.; Wu, Q. L. 3D printed poly(lactic acid) composites with grafted cellulose nanofibers: Effect of nanofiber and post-fabrication annealing treatment on composite flexural properties. Additive Manufacturing 2019, 28, 621-628. DOI:

Vidakis, N.; Petousis, M.; Maniadi, A.; Koudoumas, E.; Liebscher, M.; Tzounis, L. Mechanical Properties of 3D-Printed Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene TiO2 and ATO Nanocomposites. Polymers 2020, 12, 1589. DOI:

Stepashkin, A. A.; Chukowv, D. I.; Senatov, F. S.; Salimon, A. I.; Korsunsky, A. M. Kaloshkin, S. D. 3D-printed PEEK-carbon fiber (CF) composites: structure and thermal properties. Composites Science and Technology 2018, 164, 319-326. DOI:

Chalgham, A.; Wickenkamp, I.; Ehrmann, A. Mechanical properties of FDM printed PLA parts before and after thermal treatment. Polymers 2021, 13, 1239. DOI:

Kozior, T.; Blachowicz, T.; Ehrmann, A. Adhesion of 3D printing on textile fabrics – inspiration from and for other research areas. J. Eng. Fibers Fabr. 2020, 15, 1558925020910875. DOI:

Sitotaw, B.; Ahrendt, D.; Kyosev, Y.; Kabish, A. K. Additive Manufacturing and Textiles – State-of-the-Art. Appl. Sci. 2020, 10, 5033. DOI:

Sitotaw, B.; Muenks, D.; Kyosev, Y.; Kabish, A. K. Influence of fluorocarbon treatment on the adhesion of material extrusion 3D prints on textile. J. Ind. Text. 2022, 52, 15280837221137014. DOI:

Grothe, T.; Brockhagen, B.; Storck, J. L. Three-dimensional printing resin on different textile substrates using stereolithography: A proof of concept. J. Eng. Fibers Fabr. 2020, 15, 1558925020933440. DOI:

Grimmelsmann, N.; Kreuziger, M.; Korger, M.; Meissner, H.; Ehrmann, A. Adhesion of 3D printed material on textile substrates. Rapid Prototyping J. 2018, 24, 166-170. DOI:

Spahiu, T.; Al-Arabiyat, M.; Martens, Y.; Ehrmann, A.; Piperi, E.; Shehi, E. Adhesion of 3D printing polymers on textile fabrics for garment production. IOP Conf. Ser.: Mater. Sci. Eng. 2018, 459, 012065. DOI:

Eutionnat-Diffo, P. A.; Chen, Y.; Guan, J. P.; Cayla, A.; Campagne, C.; Zeng, X. Y.; Nierstraz, V. Stress, strain and deformation of poly-lactic acid filament deposited onto polyethylene terephthalate woven fabric through 3D printing process. Sci. Rep. 2019, 9, 14333. DOI:

Korger, M.; Bergschneider, J.; Lutz, M.; Mahltig, B.; Finsterbusch, K.; Rabe, M. Possible Applications of 3D Printing Technology on Textile Substrates. IOP Conf. Ser.: Mater. Sci. Eng. 2016, 141, 012011. DOI:

Kozior, T.; Döpke, C.; Grimmelsmann, N.; Juhász Junger, I.; Ehrmann, A. Influence of fabric pretreatment on adhesion of three-dimensional printed material on textile substrates. Adv. Mech. Eng. 2018, 10, 792316. DOI:

Görmer, D.; Störmer, J.; Ehrmann, A. The influence of thermal after-treatment on the adhesion of 3D prints on textile fabrics. Communications in Development and Assembling of Textile Products 2020, 1, 104-110. DOI: 10.25367/cdatp.2020.1.p104-110.

Störmer, J.; Görmer, D.; Ehrmann, A. Influence of washing and thermal post-treatment on the adhesion between 3D-printed TPU and woven fabrics. Communications in Development and Assembling of Textile Products 2021, 2, 104-110. DOI:

Korger, M.; Glogowsky, A.; Sanduloff, S.; Steinem, C.; Huysman, S.; Horn, B.; Ernst, M.; Rabe, M. Testing thermoplastic elastomers selected as flexible three-dimensional printing materials for functional garment and technical textile applications. J. Eng. Fibers Fabrics 2020, 15, 1558925020924599. DOI:

Richter, C.; Schmülling, S.; Ehrmann, A.; Finsterbusch, K. FDM printing of 3D forms with embedded fibrous materials. Design, Manufacturing and Mechatronics 2015, pp. 961-969. DOI:

Fafenrot, S.; Korger, M.; Ehrmann, A. Mechanical properties of composites from textiles and three-dimensional printed materials. In Mechanical and Physical Testing of Biocomposites, Fibre-Reinforced Composites and Hybrid Composites, Woodhead Publishing, 2018.

Panneke, N.; Ehrmann, A. Stab-resistant polymers – recent developments in materials and structures. Polymers 2023, 15, 983. DOI:

Sitotaw, D. B.; Ahrendt, D.; Kyosev, Y.; Kabish, A. K. A review on the performance and comfort of stab protection armor. AUTEX Res. J. 2022, 22, 96-107.

Cross section of PLA sample



How to Cite

Özev, M.-S. ., & Ehrmann, A. (2023). Sandwiching textiles with FDM Printing. Communications in Development and Assembling of Textile Products, 4(1), 88-94.



Peer-reviewed articles