Vessel Traffic Services (VTS) and e-Navigation to safely and efficiently connect Regions


  • Gianiti Claresta Department of Marine Engineering, Faculty of Marine Technology, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Surabaya 60111, Indonesia
  • Michael Baldauf Hochschule Wismar University of Applied Sciences: Technology, Business and Design, Warnemünde, Maritime Simulation Centre Warnemünde, 18119, Germany



Vessel Traffic Services, Sunda Strait, IMO, IALA, Qualitative Research, Human Element, Maritime Safety


VVessel Traffic Services (VTS) are shore-based systems to ensure safe and efficient flow of shipping along coast lines and from and to ports. They are standardized and regulated by United Nation’s International Maritime Organization (IMO) with major contributing work from International Association of Marine Aids to Navigation and Lighthouse Authorities (IALA). VTSs serve as an additional safety barrier by contributing to the avoidance of maritime accidents and incidents. In the era of digitalization and automation shore-based services are becoming increasingly popular and an important tool to protect the marine environment. The Straits of Sunda divides the region of Western Java and Sumatra island. The straits serving national and international shipping and are characterized by high traffic density in its coastal waters, including crossing passage of the national heaviest ferry traffic. Consequently, it is one of the major safety concerns in Indonesia. Four accidents of ships’ collision, grounding, and fire on board have been recorded in the area from 2011-2019 as officially reported by the national safety committee (KNKT). At the same time, VTS provides valuable services to mariners. The implementation of operational standards that comply with international rules and regulations, such as IMO Resolution A.857(20), and IALA Guideline 1111, should be further developed to benefit from the broader set of VTS function. A basic marine engineering study has been done to investigate the roles of Merak VTS implemented at Sunda Strait using German VTS operation as sample cases. In this respect, empirical studies were used to collect primary qualitative data and analysis of secondary data concerning the aspects of human element, the technical and administrative work. The research is to investigate how Merak VTS could potentially improve its contributions to traffic safety and in what way the new routeing and the mandatory ship reporting systems can be integrated to ensure positive effects. The outcome of first basic studies suggests that well adapted procedures, proper equipment, and especially well-trained VTS staff may provide a huge potential to further improve as well as optimize the operation of Merak VTS.


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